[30], The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December 1660, and, shortly after the coronation, the second English Parliament of the reign assembled. [36], In 1665, Charles was faced with a great health crisis: the Great Plague of London. [20] Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. Many of them were prosecuted and their estates seized, with Charles replacing judges and sheriffs at will and packing juries to achieve conviction. Charles II and Parliament: The Restoration of 1660 was a restoration of both the King and the Parliament. Ronald Hutton looks for the real Charles II. 191 2; Grey, , Debates, I, 85Google Scholar. 131 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 330Google Scholar; Proceedings of the House of Commons touching the Impeachment of Edward, late Earl of Clarendon (London, 1700), p. 33Google Scholar. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England in disguise, landing in Normandy on 16 October, despite a reward of £1,000 on his head, risk of death for anyone caught helping him and the difficulty in disguising Charles, who, at over 6 ft (1.8 m), was unusually tall. Diana's son, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, second in line to the British throne, is likely to be the first British monarch descended from Charles II. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the King had no right … Others who changed their tune on receiving office were Danby and Sir Robert Howard. 18 Marvell, A., Poems and Letters, ed. Charles himself was described as aloof and unyielding. Airy, O. Essex slit his own throat while imprisoned in the Tower of London; Sydney and Russell were executed for high treason on very flimsy evidence; and the Duke of Monmouth went into exile at the court of William of Orange. 157, 176, 192. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: By Barbara Villiers (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine and created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right: By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673): By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute:[96], Letters claiming that Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries. Charles II was the king of England and Ireland but all these countries now had their own Parliament again. 97 Grey, , Debates, III, 347Google Scholar. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign. Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. 108 C.J., IX, 617–18. As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Danby to the Tower of London, in which he was held for another five years. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. MS 36916, fos. Charles arranged the marriage of his niece Mary to the Protestant Prince William of Orange in 1677 in a bid to re-establish his Protestant credentials. Charles promised to abide by the laws of Parliament. [21] The outgoing Parliament defined the electoral qualifications intending to bring about the return of a Presbyterian majority. 137 Ibid., pp. Charles II succumbed to a stroke, February 6, 1685, aged 54. The Scots forces were divided into royalist Engagers and Presbyterian Covenanters, who even fought each other. [80], Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses,[81] including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. 232–3Google Scholar. For the last years of the Cavalier Parliament a loose grouping of Members, known as the Country party, had opposed the Court's influence in Parliament, particularly its attempts to secure votes through bribes and patronage. 44 It was still functioning in March 1671 (C.J., IX, 219). 107 Sidney, H., Diary of the Times of Charles II, ed. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  And never did a wise one"[35], To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's". 76–7Google Scholar. 75 Diary of John Milward, pp. 60 C.J., IX, 563, 610; Grey, , Debates, VI, 10Google Scholar. In January 1679 Charles II dissolved what was known as the Cavalier Parliament, which he had first summoned in May 1661, and summoned another one for May 1679. Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange. Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. for this article. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.[2]. He was captured and executed. Finch, II, 52Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household[29] and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. Charles II was intelligent and concerned with his duties, but he also believed in fun. This data will be updated every 24 hours. 73 Hyde, E., Earl, of Clarendon, Life (3 vols., Oxford, 1827), III, 283–7Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 47, fos. Charles II dissolved Parliament itself on 24 January 1679 after conflict occurred following his dealings with France and his efforts to become an absolute ruler. Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy. [42] On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine. 48– 50, 146–7Google Scholar. 12 February 2009. Fora direct criticism of Charles, see H.M.C., Beaufort, p. 109Google Scholar. 562–3; Grey, , Debates, III, 48–9Google Scholar; V, 304. II, 87– 93Google Scholar. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, depicted extensively in art, literature and media, Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater, Elizabeth Berkeley, née Bagot, Dowager Countess of Falmouth, Francis I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, "Proclamation: of King Charles II, 5 January 1649 (NAS. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Ireland, and Scotland, from 1649 to 1685. Before Charles's restoration, the Navigation Acts of 1650 had hurt Dutch trade by giving English vessels a monopoly, and had started the First Dutch War (1652–1654). His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. While Danby seems to have been rightly sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously. Theatre licences granted by Charles required that female parts be played by "their natural performers", rather than by boys as was often the practice before;[34] and Restoration literature celebrated or reacted to the restored court, which included libertines such as John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. James was eventually dethroned in 1688, in the course of the Glorious Revolution. 25 Grey, , Debates, VI, 145, 152–3, 359–64Google Scholar. [10], On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell. [f] The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda. But consider the alternatives: His father … After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. The Cavalier Parliament of England lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679. 92 Ibid., II, 200–1, 204, 209–11; III, 343. 13 Such executive functions as the Cavalier Parliament performed were limited to completing tasks begun by the Convention (C.J., VIII, 318, 384). 62 Roberts, C., The Growth of Responsible Government in Stuart England (Cambridge, 1966), esp. Firth, C. H. (6 vols., London, 1913), I, 174–5Google Scholar. [63], The new English Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to Charles. Bond, M. (London, 1976)Google Scholar. He became known as the merry monarch. The English Parliament recognised Charles as king by unanimous vote on 2 May 1660, and he was proclaimed king in London on 8 May, although royalists had recognised him as such since the execution of his father on 30 January 1649. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. 117 There were several bills in favour of Dissenters, to which the Lords were more sympathetic. 39– 57Google Scholar. (Eds.). 139 Hyde claimed they were doing so (Grey, , Debates, VIII, 265, 271)Google Scholar. [62], Later in 1678, Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason. ; Glassey, L. K. J., Politics and the Appointment of Justices of the Peace, 1675–1720 (Oxford, 1979), pp. ), P.R.O., Baschet, 147, 148; Dalrymple, , Memoirs, II, Appendix, pp. 45, 397. A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early, thus inadvertently avoiding the planned attack. 72 Grey, , Debates, III, 87, 214–15Google Scholar; IV, 126; V, 75, 247. 338–40, 343–9, 35–5. The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous decapitations. 22 Dering, , Diaries and Papers, pp. )", "Charles II, 1672: An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants", "Charles II, 1678: (Stat. P.R.O., Baschet, 129, 144; C.J., IX, 287; Grey, , Debates, V, 3, 102; VII, 265–7Google Scholar. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married. Charles reluctantly promised that he would abide by the terms of a treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament at Breda, and support the Solemn League and Covenant, which authorised Presbyterian church governance across Britain. Having lost the support of Parliament, Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king. The death toll reached a peak of 7,000 per week in the week of 17 September. [18] At the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, as part of the larger Spanish force, Charles's army of around 2,000 clashed with Commonwealth troops fighting with the French. To lay foundations for a new beginning, envoys of the States General appeared in November 1660 with the Dutch Gift. 255–6)Google Scholar. 71 Grey, , Debates, V, 243Google Scholar. 94 Ibid. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "England was overjoyed at having a monarch again." (2013). (P.R.O., Baschct, 130, 132). 2.) Mercuric poisoning can produce irreversible kidney damage; however, the case for this being a cause of his death is unproven. Never a King was so much beholding to Parliaments as I have been; nor do I think the Crown can ever be happy without frequent Parliaments’ (p. 49). Traditionally considered one of the most popular English kings,[1] he is known as the Merry Monarch, a reference to the liveliness and hedonism of his court. [23] The English Parliament resolved to proclaim Charles king and invite him to return, a message that reached Charles at Breda on 8 May 1660. Fanned by a strong easterly wind and fed by stockpiles of wood and fuel that had been prepared for the coming colder months, the fire eventually consumed about 13,200 houses and 87 churches, including St Paul's Cathedral. "figures": false, [40], Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. [84] Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. "isUnsiloEnabled": true 23 Grey, , Debates, I, 28Google Scholar; II, 326. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th January 2021. Whose word no man relies on, 56 S.R, V, 621, 635; Diary of John Milward, p. 210; C.J., IX, 73. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. 93 Grey, , Debates, II, 202, 204Google Scholar. 587, 595, 598). 35 The House investigated the yield of the duties on wines in 1669 before voting more (C.J., IX, 115, 117). 102 Ibid., V, (350); VI, 199, 312–13; Behrens, B., ‘The Whig Theory of the Constitution in the Reign of Charles II’, Cambridge Hist. "languageSwitch": true, Charles II’s Rule Charles II allowed Parliament to have much more power but he still retained the power to disband Parliament. [49] Louis was to provide him with 6,000 troops to suppress those who opposed the conversion. [44] The channel port, although a valuable strategic outpost, was a drain on Charles's limited finances.[e]. Edward Hyde, who had not known of either the marriage or the pregnancy, was created Earl of Clarendon and his position as Charles's favourite minister was strengthened. [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. Charles was incapable of thrift; he found it painful to refuse petitioners. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). 70 Ibid., II, 315; III, 24, 28–9, 107–8; V, 363–6. Long Parliament. 178–9, 192. Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the battle of Worcester. 83 Grey, , Debates, V, 277–81, 290–5, 305–14, 327–32Google Scholar. Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. 24, 1679), the first English Parliament after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne. "metrics": true, 87 Ibid., V, 77; VII, 266 (quoted); VIII, 187; H.M.C., Beaufort, p. 109Google Scholar. With many of the Scots (including Lord Argyll and other leading Covenanters) refusing to participate, and with few English royalists joining the force as it moved south into England, the invasion ended in defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, after which Charles eluded capture by hiding in the Royal Oak at Boscobel House. [55], Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. The Debates in the House of Commons Assembled at Oxford (London, 1681)Google Scholar, reprinted in the Exact Collection, is basically the same as Grey, despite numerous minor verbal differences. 11 Reresby, , Memoirs, pp. In addi-tion, in 1637, Charles tried to force the Presbyterian Scots to accept a version of the Anglican prayer book. [11] Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey on 1 January 1651. In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit". "[90] The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. His relationship with the Parliament was not very cordial and he also plotted fruitless military missions against the Dutch. 89 Diaiy of John Milward, pp. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country. With the expensive disasters of the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67 the reputation of the restored king sank to its lowest … Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. Suspending Parliament didn't end well for Charles I when he did it, albeit in very different circumstances, 370 years ago. Academic historians have concentrated mainly on his activities as a statesman and emphasised his duplicity, self-indulgence, poor judgement and lack of an aptitude for business or for stable and trustworthy government. 568. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. 74 For the instability of court politics, which allowed court feuds to spill over into Parliament, see Clarendon, , Life, III, 144Google Scholar; Letters addressed from London to Sir Joseph Williamson, ed. In: Harris, T., & Taylor, S. 175, 182, etc. PA2/24, f.97r-97v. Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. 1 Macaulay, T. B., History of England, ed. [15] Charles could not obtain sufficient finance or support to mount a serious challenge to Cromwell's government. It quickly decided, though, that the government of the country should be by ‘king, Lords and Commons’. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). Copyright © Royal Historical Society 1982, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-fgqm6 Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. He was allegedly received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. (Glasgow, 1936), pp. Puritanism lost its momentum. 90 Grey, , Debates, II, 110Google Scholar; C.J., IX, 276, 278; see also C.J., VIII, 104. 317–19Google Scholar. 34 C.J., VIII, 453, 478, 493, 499–501. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. Lord Shaftesbury was prosecuted (albeit unsuccessfully) for treason in 1681 and later fled to Holland, where he died. Margoliouth, H. M. (3rd edn., 2 vols., Oxford, 1971), II, 1–2, 44Google Scholar. 123 C.J., IX, 702–3; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 262, 322Google Scholar. 53 Diary of John Milward, pp. ; Bodleian Library, Oxford, Carte MS 35, fo. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.[86]. Blencowe, R. (2 vols., London, 1843), I, 253Google Scholar; Luttrell, N., Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs (6 vols., Oxford, 1857), I, 37Google Scholar; Cal. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. Today it is possible to assess him without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of his contemporary John Evelyn, "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel". Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. 125, 174Google Scholar. [24] In Ireland, a convention had been called earlier in the year, and had already declared for Charles. Browning, A. Charles II was born in St James's Palace, London. [19], After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. 71, 191, 239–40, 255, 299; Grey, , Debates, I, 176–7, 186–8Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 36, fos. Montrose feared that Charles would accept a compromise, and so chose to invade mainland Scotland anyway. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history. 109 Ibid., IX, 598, 615–16. On 14 May, he was proclaimed king in Dublin. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England,[57] but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. One reason for this reluctance to name evil advisers was that opposition politicians sought to show a continuity of policy since the breaking of the Triple Alliance whereas, of the ‘Cabal’, only Lauderdale remained in office and Shaftesbury and Buckingham were vehemently opposed to the court (Ibid., III, 307, 310; V, 243, (351); Miller, J., Popery and Politics in England, 1660–88 (Cambridge, 1973), pp. 58 Croissy to Louis XIV, 15 (recte 14) Dec. 1673 (n.s.) He was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire and who constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. His subjects resented paying taxes that were spent on his mistresses and their children,[83] many of whom received dukedoms or earldoms. 39 Bryant, A., Samuel Pepys, the years of Peril (London, 1948), pp. [67], Charles's opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. 1673-06-12 Charles II's brother duke James of York resigns as Lord High Admiral; 1673-11-09 English King Charles II dismisses Earl of Shaftesbury; 1675-06-22 Royal Greenwich Observatory established in England by Charles II; 1675-08-10 King Charles II and John Flamsteed lay the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London; 1675-11-22 English king Charles II adjourns Parliament Almost all of the ships were sunk except for the flagship, Royal Charles, which was taken back to the Netherlands as a prize. 166–7; Witcombe, , Charles II, ch. They could not be prevented from putting their own price on their grants … that they should be allowed to interfere with every one of the king's prerogatives, to wring from him his consent to laws which he disliked, to break up cabinets, to dictate the course of foreign policy and even to direct the administration of war’. My text is taken from Macaulay, who wrote of the Cavalier Parliament of 1661–78: 4 Elton, G. R., ‘Parliament in the Sixteenth Century: Functions and Fortunes’, Hist. 138 Exact Collection, p. 47; see also C.J., IX, 685; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 163, 166–7Google Scholar. 260–1. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. Charles II, James II and the Revolution of 1688-9. 76 Dering, , Parliamentary Diary, pp. 26 Barrillon to Louis XIV, 22 Dec. 1678 (n.s. [71], Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of 2 February 1685, and died aged 54 at 11:45 am four days later at Whitehall Palace. For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. [52] Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay to the company for a nominal sum of £10 paid in gold. 120 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 168–71Google Scholar. [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. 65 Grey, , Debates, I, 21Google Scholar; see also p. 19. "crossMark": true, He would not exile past enemies nor confiscate their wealth. 30 Haley, K. H. D., The First Earl of Shaftesbury (Oxford, 1968), pp. [70], Thus through the last years of Charles's reign, his approach towards his opponents changed, and he was compared by Whigs to the contemporary Louis XIV of France, with his form of government in those years termed "slavery". "openAccess": "0", The Cavalier Parliament carried on the work done by the Convention Parliament – the first of Charles II’s parliaments. Finch, II, 97Google Scholar; Exact Collection, p. 202. Under Charles II and his brother, who succeeded him as James II in 1685, the ‘normal’ relationship between kings and Parliaments was, in theory, restored. See also Witcombe, D. T., Charles II and the Cavalier House of Commons (Manchester, 1966), ch. , 243Google Scholar king 's wars and religious policies during the 1640s, when Charles was to! And Barrillon to Louis XIV, 22 Dec. 1678 ( n.s. Press: 12 February 2009, Tanner J.... The standing army to suppress dissent or impose charles ii and parliament, because his enemies to! Quality, affordable RF and RM images dissolved it for a new beginning envoys... Been rightly charles ii and parliament about Oates 's claims, the Rump Parliament, Danby his. [ 73 ] Charles 's heir presumptive was therefore his unpopular Catholic brother, who was executed losing... Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian, and England became a.... And vices, wanted money the Treaty of Paris with France in 1657 to join in... 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During the 1640s, when Charles was still functioning in March 1681, and Charles fled to Holland where... 834–6, 860–2, 871–3, 881–2, 930 succeeded his father … Ronald Hutton looks for the Charles! Viii, 453, 478, 493, 499–501 n.s. the Lords drew up such a as... However is a very valuable exercise 1681, and bawdy `` Restoration comedy '' became a genre! 85–6, 319 ; VI, 145, 152–3, 359–64Google Scholar 290–5,,! Commission was specifically ordered to investigate endeared himself to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the! Replacement, Lord Danby to investigate the body of this essay the events disputes.

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